The Book of Peace (Penn State Romance Studies)

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He dies in his ultimate struggle against the dragon, but he kills the opponent with the help of his liege man Wiclaf, and again peace rules at the price paid by the protagonist himself. Njal strives for peaceful settlements and works tirelessly to reach out to hostile parties in order to overcome blood feud. Tragically, however, him and his family die by fire at the end of the poem, but his memory as a peace-maker is highlighted. The Nibelungenlied leaves us deeply frustrated, considering the enormous bloodshed. No one cares for peace. Instead, they arrogantly succumb to misguided heroism.

However, a follow-up lament, Diu Klage The Lament , recounts heroic deeds, the dead warriors, and news that is carried to surviving family members in the West. There is a glimmer of hope, when the son of the deceased King Gunther is crowned and placed on the throne, signaling a new beginning, perhaps without the traditional military mentality. And indeed, ca. The basic narrative pattern consists of brutal bridal quests, but when Kudrun is kidnapped, she refuses to submit and thus suffers for ten years until liberated by family and warriors.

Kudrun then brings an end to the bloodshed and calls for peaceful marriages and resolves the hatred between two dynasties. In other words, human culture has always been determined by military thinking, revenge, and hatred, but the literary discourse in the Middle Ages outlined powerful strategies as to how conflicts between individuals or kingdoms could be overcome and thus counterbalance military perspective.

Francis of Assisi — exerted profound influence on his society during the Middle Ages through his religious teachings and example as the founder of the entire Franciscan monastic movement. He reflected identified peace as heavenly, but then, as peace in the human heart which subsequently brings about social peace.

Francis himself did not leave us an elaborate discussion of what peace really meant, but he practiced it throughout his entire life, whether he engaged with his fellow people or with the birds and beasts. Christine de Pizan — , an important fifteenth-century woman writer, composed a treatise on peace, Le Livre de la paix , 9 in which she pursues a mostly didactic-religious perspective, addressing princes primarily, who should work diligently toward peace. Dissension, as the result of intolerance, creates aggression, which evolves into violence.

A prince is supposed to put aside hatred, and subscribe to love, benevolence, and unity In essence, she equates peace with wisdom, since no wise ruler would voluntarily replace peace with war. For Christine, peace can be maintained if princes listen to wise counselors, appoints trustworthy officials, avoids cruelty book II , exerts justice, pays attention to authority, and avoids unilateral decisions. She advocated for peace from a political-ethical standpoint, and thus contributed in a highly pragmatic fashion to the further development of the discourse on peace in the pre-modern era, a time certainly deeply shaken by extensive and long-term wars and other military conflicts.

Both Christine and St. Francis are deeply insightful, timeless, spiritual, and illuminating philosophers on peace and its universal meaning. We need only little translation to make both their teachings relevant today. The goals and ideas have not changed, but only the material and political framework. The discourse on peace goes on, and by studying St. Francis and Christine de Pizan we can influence a peaceful future. See, for instance, the contributions to A Natural History of Peace , ed. See the Handbook on Peace Education , ed. The basic system is most clearly indicated in Spanish, where there are only three classes, corresponding to the first, second and third declensions in Latin: plural in -as feminine , plural in -os masculine , plural in -es either masculine or feminine.

The singular endings exactly track the plural, except the singular -e is dropped after certain consonants. The same system underlines many other modern Romance languages, such as Portuguese, French and Catalan. In these languages, however, further sound changes have resulted in various irregularities. Noun inflection has survived in Romanian somewhat better than elsewhere. In addition, there is a separate vocative case, enriched with native development and Slavic borrowings see some examples here and the combination of noun with a following clitic definite article produces a separate set of "definite" inflections for nouns.

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The inflectional classes of Latin have also survived more in Romanian than elsewhere, e. Many other exceptional forms, however, are due to later sound changes or analogy, e. In Italian, the situation is somewhere in between Spanish and Romanian. A different type of noun inflection survived into the medieval period in a number of western Romance languages Old French , Old Occitan , and the older forms of a number of Rhaeto-Romance languages. This inflection distinguished nominative from oblique, grouping the accusative case with the oblique, rather than with the nominative as in Romanian.

The oblique case in these languages generally inherits from the Latin accusative; as a result, masculine nouns have distinct endings in the two cases while most feminine nouns do not. A number of different inflectional classes are still represented at this stage. For example, the difference in the nominative case between masculine li voisins "the neighbor" and li pere "the father", and feminine la riens "the thing" vs. A few of these multi-stem nouns derive from Latin forms without stress shift, e.

All of these multi-stem nouns refer to people; other nouns with stress shift in Latin e. Some of the same nouns with multiple stems in Old French or Old Occitan have come down in Italian in the nominative rather than the accusative e. As described above, case marking on pronouns is much more extensive than for nouns. Determiners e. Unlike in English, a separate neuter personal pronoun "it" generally does not exist, but the third-person singular and plural both distinguish masculine from feminine.

Also, as described above, case is marked on pronouns even though it is not usually on nouns, similar to English. As in English, there are forms for nominative case subject pronouns , oblique case object pronouns , and genitive case possessive pronouns ; in addition, third-person pronouns distinguish accusative and dative. There is also an additional set of possessive determiners, distinct from the genitive case of the personal pronoun; this corresponds to the English difference between "my, your" and "mine, yours". The Romance languages do not retain the Latin third-person personal pronouns, but have innovated a separate set of third-person pronouns by borrowing the demonstrative ille "that over there " , and creating a separate reinforced demonstrative by attaching a variant of ecce "behold!

Similarly, in place of the genitive of the Latin pronouns, most Romance languages adopted the reflexive possessive, which then serves indifferently as both reflexive and non-reflexive possessive. Note that the reflexive, and hence the third-person possessive, is unmarked for the gender of the person being referred to. Hence, although gendered possessive forms do exist—e.

Portuguese seu masc.

Penn State Romance Studies

In spoken Brazilian Portuguese , these collocations are the usual way of expressing the third-person possessive, since the former possessive seu carro now has the meaning "your car". The same demonstrative ille is the source of the definite article in most Romance languages see below , which explains the similarity in form between personal pronoun and definite article.

When the two are different, it is usually because of differing degrees of phonological reduction. Generally, the personal pronoun is unreduced beyond normal sound change , while the article has undergone various degrees of reduction, beginning with loss of one of the two original syllables, e.

Object pronouns in Latin were normal words, but in the Romance languages they have become clitic forms, which must stand adjacent to a verb and merge phonologically with it. Originally, object pronouns could come either before or after the verb; sound change would often produce different forms in these two cases, with numerous additional complications and contracted forms when multiple clitic pronouns cooccurred. Catalan still largely maintains this system with a highly complex clitic pronoun system.

Most languages, however, have simplified this system by undoing some of the clitic mergers and requiring clitics to stand in a particular position relative to the verb usually after imperatives, before other finite forms, and either before or after non-finite forms depending on the language. When a pronoun cannot serve as a clitic, a separate disjunctive form is used. These result from dative object pronouns pronounced with stress which causes them to develop differently from the equivalent unstressed pronouns , or from subject pronouns. Most Romance languages are null subject languages.

The subject pronouns are used only for emphasis and take the stress, and as a result are not clitics. In French, however as in Friulian and in some Gallo-Italian languages of northern Italy , verbal agreement marking has degraded to the point that subject pronouns have become mandatory, and have turned into clitics. These forms cannot be stressed, so for emphasis the disjunctive pronouns must be used in combination with the clitic subject forms. Friulian and the Gallo-Italian languages have actually gone further than this and merged the subject pronouns onto the verb as a new type of verb agreement marking, which must be present even when there is a subject noun phrase.

Some non-standard varieties of French treat disjunctive pronouns as arguments and clitic pronouns as agreement markers. In medieval times, most Romance languages developed a distinction between familiar and polite second-person pronouns a so-called T-V distinction , similar to the former English distinction between familiar "thou" and polite "you".

This distinction was determined by the relationship between the speakers. French is still at this stage, with familiar singular tu vs. In cases like this, the pronoun requires plural agreement in all cases whenever a single affix marks both person and number as in verb agreement endings and object and possessive pronouns , but singular agreement elsewhere where appropriate e. Many languages, however, innovated further in developing an even more polite pronoun, generally composed of some noun phrases e. Spanish innovated similarly, with usted es from earlier vuestra s merced es.

In Portuguese and Spanish as in other languages with similar forms , the "extra-polite" forms in time came to be the normal polite forms, and the former polite or plural second-person vos was displaced to a familiar form, either becoming a familiar plural as in European Spanish or a familiar singular as in many varieties of Latin American Spanish. A similar path was followed by Italian and Romanian. As in European Spanish, the original second-person plural voi serves as familiar plural.

In Italy, during fascist times leading up to World War II , voi was resurrected as a polite singular, and discarded again afterwards, although it remains in some southern dialects. The form o senhor and feminine a senhora is sometimes used in speech, but only in situations where an English speaker would say "sir" or "ma'am".

The result is that second-person verb forms have disappeared, and the whole pronoun system has been radically realigned. Latin had no articles as such. Romance languages have both indefinite and definite articles, but none of the above words form the basis for either of these. Usually the definite article is derived from the Latin demonstrative ille "that" , but some languages e. Some languages, e.


French and Italian, have a partitive article that approximately translates as "some". This is used either with mass nouns or with plural nouns—both cases where the indefinite article cannot occur. A partitive article is used and in French, required whenever a bare noun refers to specific but unspecified or unknown quantity of the noun, but not when a bare noun refers to a class in general. For example, the partitive would be used in both of the following sentences:. The sentence "Men arrived today", however, presumably means "some specific men arrived today" rather than "men, as a general class, arrived today" which would mean that there were no men before today.

On the other hand, "I hate men" does mean "I hate men, as a general class" rather than "I hate some specific men". As in many other cases, French has developed the farthest from Latin in its use of articles. In French, nearly all nouns, singular and plural, must be accompanied by an article either indefinite, definite, or partitive or demonstrative pronoun. Due to pervasive sound changes in French, most nouns are pronounced identically in the singular and plural, and there is often heavy homophony between nouns and identically pronounced words of other classes.

The article helps identify the noun forms saint or sein , and distinguish singular from plural; likewise, the mandatory subject of verbs helps identify the verb ceint. In more conservative Romance languages, neither articles nor subject pronouns are necessary, since all of the above words are pronounced differently. Latin, at least originally, had a three-way distinction among demonstrative pronouns distinguished by distal value: hic 'this', iste 'that near you ', ille 'that over there ', similar to the distinction that used to exist in English as "this" vs.

In urban Latin of Rome, iste came to have a specifically derogatory meaning, but this innovation apparently did not reach the provinces and is not reflected in the modern Romance languages. A number of these languages still have such a three-way distinction, although hic has been lost and the other pronouns have shifted somewhat in meaning. For example, Spanish has este "this" vs. The Spanish pronouns derive, respectively, from Latin iste ipse accu - ille , where accu- is an emphatic prefix derived from eccum "behold it! Reinforced demonstratives such as accu - ille arose as ille came to be used as an article as well as a demonstrative.

Such forms were often created even when not strictly needed to distinguish otherwise ambiguous forms. Reinforced forms are likewise common in locative adverbs words such as English here and there , based on related Latin forms such as hic "this" vs. Here again French prefers bare ecce while Spanish and Italian prefer eccum French ici "here" vs.

Subsequent changes often reduced the number of demonstrative distinctions. Standard Italian, for example, has only a two-way distinction "this" vs. In Catalan, however, a former three-way distinction aquest, aqueix, aquell has been reduced differently, with first-person and second-person demonstratives combined. Hence aquest means either "this" or "that near you "; on the phone, aquest is used to refer both to speaker and addressee.

Verbs have many conjugations , including in most languages:. The main tense and mood distinctions that were made in classical Latin are generally still present in the modern Romance languages, though many are now expressed through compound rather than simple verbs. The passive voice, which was mostly synthetic in classical Latin, has been completely replaced with compound forms.

For a more detailed illustration of how the verbs have changed with respect to classical Latin, see Romance verbs. In Portuguese , a morphological present perfect does exist but has a different meaning closer to "I have been doing". The following are common features of the Romance languages inherited from Vulgar Latin that are different from Classical Latin:.

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Romance languages have borrowed heavily, though mostly from other Romance languages. However, some, such as Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and French, have borrowed heavily from other language groups. Vulgar Latin borrowed first from indigenous languages of the Roman empire, and during the Germanic folk movements , from Germanic languages , especially Gothic; for Eastern Romance languages, during Bulgarian Empires , from Slavic languages , especially Bulgarian. See History of French — The Franks.

Many Greek loans also entered the lexicon, e. Many basic nouns and verbs, especially those that were short or had irregular morphology, were replaced by longer derived forms with regular morphology. Nouns, and sometimes adjectives, were often replaced by diminutives , e. Spanish hallar , Portuguese achar , Romansh dial. Spanish hablar , Dalmatian favlur , Sardinian faeddare , based on Jesus' way of speaking in parables. Many prepositions were used as verbal particles to make new roots and verb stems, e.

Italian estrarre , Aromanian astragu , astradziri "to extract" from Latin ex- "out of" and trahere "to pull" Italian trarre "draw, pull", Aromanian tragu , tradziri , or to augment already existing words, e. Many prepositions and commonly became compounded, e. Some words derived from phrases, e. A number of common Latin words that have disappeared in many or most Romance languages have survived either in the periphery or in remote corners especially Sardinia and Romania , or as secondary terms, sometimes differing in meaning. In some cases, one language happens to preserve a word displaced elsewhere, e.

Sardinian in particular preserves many words entirely lost elsewhere, e. Sardinian preserves some words that were already archaic in Classical Latin, e. During the Middle Ages, scores of words were borrowed directly from Classical Latin so-called Latinisms , either in their original form learned loans or in a somewhat nativized form semi-learned loans.

These resulted in many doublets —pairs of inherited and learned words—such as those in the table below:. In many cases, the learned word simply displaced the original popular word: e. The learned loan always sounds and, in writing, looks more like the original than the inherited word does, because regular sound change has been bypassed; likewise, the learned word usually has a meaning closer to that of the original. Borrowing from Classical Latin has produced a large number of suffix doublets.

Similar examples can be found in all the other Romance languages. Significant sound changes affected the consonants of the Romance languages. There was a tendency to eliminate final consonants in Vulgar Latin, either by dropping them apocope or adding a vowel after them epenthesis. Many final consonants were rare, occurring only in certain prepositions e.

Many of these prepositions and conjunctions were replaced by others, while the nouns were regularized into forms based on their oblique stems that avoided the final consonants e. Final -m was dropped in Vulgar Latin. Even in Classical Latin , final -am , -em , -um inflectional suffixes of the accusative case were often elided in poetic meter , suggesting the m was weakly pronounced, probably marking the nasalisation of the vowel before it.

Final -t was eventually dropped in many languages, although this often occurred several centuries after the Vulgar Latin period. For example, the reflex of -t was dropped in Old French and Old Spanish only around Old French also kept the third-person plural ending -nt intact. In Italo-Romance and the Eastern Romance languages , eventually all final consonants were either dropped or protected by an epenthetic vowel, except in clitic forms e. Palatalization was one of the most important processes affecting consonants in Vulgar Latin.

This eventually resulted in a whole series of " palatal " and postalveolar consonants in most Romance languages, e. Note how the environments become progressively less "palatal", and the languages affected become progressively fewer. The outcomes of palatalization depended on the historical stage, the consonants involved, and the languages involved.

In both cases, phonetic palatalization must have remained in primitive Old French at least through the time when unstressed intertonic vowels were lost? This has the effect of keeping the modern spelling similar to the original Latin spelling, but complicates the relationship between sound and letter. Stop consonants shifted by lenition in Vulgar Latin in some areas. Several other consonants were "softened" in intervocalic position in Western Romance Spanish, Portuguese, French, Northern Italian , but normally not phonemically in the rest of Italy except some cases of "elegant" or Ecclesiastical words , nor apparently at all in Romanian.

The dividing line between the two sets of dialects is called the La Spezia—Rimini Line and is one of the most important isoglosses of the Romance dialects. The changes instances of diachronic lenition resulting in phonological restructuring are as follows:. Some scholars once speculated that these sound changes may be due in part to the influence of Continental Celtic languages , [ citation needed ] but scholarship of the past few decades challenges that hypothesis. Consonant length is no longer phonemically distinctive in most Romance languages. They may even occur at the beginning of words in Romanesco , Neapolitan, Sicilian and other southern varieties, and are occasionally indicated in writing, e.

A few languages have regained secondary geminate consonants. Sardinia, southern Italy. Italian scrivere , spada , spirito , Stefano , and stato. One profound change that affected Vulgar Latin was the reorganisation of its vowel system. There is evidence that in the imperial period all the short vowels except a differed by quality as well as by length from their long counterparts.

The Book of Peace: By Christine de Pizan

During the Proto-Romance period, phonemic length distinctions were lost. Vowels came to be automatically pronounced long in stressed, open syllables i. Soon, however, many of these vowels coalesced:. The Proto-Romance allophonic vowel-length system was rephonemicized in the Gallo-Romance languages as a result of the loss of many final vowels. Some northern Italian languages e. Friulan still maintain this secondary phonemic length, but most languages dropped it by either diphthongizing or shortening the new long vowels.

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  • This vowel length was eventually lost by around AD , but the former long vowels are still marked with a circumflex. This system in turn has been phonemicized in some non-standard dialects e. A number of authors remarked on this explicitly, e. Cicero 's taunt that the populist politician Publius Clodius Pulcher had changed his name from Claudius to ingratiate himself with the masses. An early process that operated in all Romance languages to varying degrees was metaphony vowel mutation , conceptually similar to the umlaut process so characteristic of the Germanic languages.

    Metaphony is most extensive in the Italo-Romance languages, and applies to nearly all languages in Italy; however, it is absent from Tuscan, and hence from standard Italian. These diphthongizations had the effect of reducing or eliminating the distinctions between open-mid and close-mid vowels in many languages.

    In Spanish and Romanian, all open-mid vowels were diphthongized, and the distinction disappeared entirely. Portuguese is the most conservative in this respect, keeping the seven-vowel system more or less unchanged but with changes in particular circumstances, e. In French and Italian, the distinction between open-mid and close-mid vowels occurred only in closed syllables.

    Standard Italian more or less maintains this. This is still the situation in modern Spanish, for example. Originally, all vowels in both languages were nasalized before any nasal consonants, and nasal consonants not immediately followed by a vowel were eventually dropped. In French, nasal vowels before remaining nasal consonants were subsequently denasalized, but not before causing the vowels to lower somewhat, e. Reconstructing Woman explores a scenario common to the works of four major French novelists of the nineteenth century: Balzac, Flaubert, Zola, and Villiers.

    Reconstructing Woman explores a scenario common to the works of four major French novelists of the Christine de Pizan, one of the earliest known women authors, wrote the Livre de paix Book of Peace between and , a period of severe corruption and civil unrest in her native France. The book offered Pizan a platform from which to expound her views on contemporary politics and to put forth a strict moral code to which she believed all Christine de Pizan, one of the earliest known women authors, wrote the Livre de paix Book of Present scholarly conversations about early European and global modernity have yet to acknowledge fully the significance of Spain and Spanish cultural production.

    Poetry and ideology in early modern Spain form the backdrop for Imperial Lyric, which seeks to address this shortcoming. Based on readings of representative poems by eight Peninsular